# A note about the Arens’ space

The Arens’ space is a canonical example of a sequential space that is not a Frechet space. It also has a subspace that is not sequential (thus the notion of being a sequential is not hereditary). We show that any space that is sequential but not Frechet contains a copy of the Arens’ space. For previous discussion on sequential spaces and Frechet spaces, see the links at the end of this post. Also see  and .

Let $\omega$ be the set of all nonnegative integers. Let $\mathbb{N}$ be the set of all positive integers. In one formulation, the Arens’ space is the set $X=\left\{\infty\right\} \cup \mathbb{N} \cup (\mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N})$ with the open neighborhoods defined by:

• The points in $\mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N}$ are isolated;
• The neighborhoods at each $n \in \mathbb{N}$ are of the form $B_{n,m}=\left\{n\right\} \cup \left\{(n,j) \in \mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N}:j \ge m\right\}$ for some $m \in \mathbb{N}$;
• The neighborhoods at $\infty$ are obtained by removing from $X$ finitely many $B_{n,1}$ and by removing finitely many isolated points in each of the remaining $B_{n,1}$.

Another formulation is that of a quotient space. For each $n \in \omega$, let $K_n=\left\{x_{n,j}:j \in \mathbb{N}\right\} \cup \left\{y_n\right\}$ be a convergent sequence such that $y_n$ is the limit. Let $G$ be a topological sum of the convergent sequences $K_n$. We then identify $\left\{x_{0,j},y_j\right\}$ for each $j \in \mathbb{N}$. The Arens’ space is the resulting quotient space and let $Y$ denote this space (in the literature $S_2$ is used). Note that the Arens’ space has been previously defined in this blog (see An example of a quotient space, II). Note that the quotient space $Y$ is topologically identical to $X$. In the remainder of this note, we work with $X$ in discussing the Arens’ space.

The Arens’ space is sequential since it is a quotient space of a first countable space. The subspace $\left\{\infty\right\} \cup (\mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N})$ is not sequential, proving that the Arens’ space is not a Frechet space.

We now show that any sequential space that is not Frechet contains a copy of the Arens’ space. We have the following theorem.

Theorem
Let $W$ be a sequential space. Then $W$ is Frechet if and only $W$ does not contain a copy of the Arens’ space.

Proof $\Longrightarrow$ This direction is clear since the Frechet property is hereditary. $\Longleftarrow$ For any $T \subset W$, let $T^s$ be the set of limits of sequences of points of $T$. Suppose $W$ is not Frechet. Then for some $A \subset W$, there exists $x \in \overline{A}$ such that $x \notin A^s$. Since $A^s$ is non-closed in $W$ and since $W$ is sequential, there is a sequence $w_n$ of points of $A^s$ converging to $z_0 \notin A^s$. We can assume that $w_n \notin A$ for all but finitely many $n$ (otherwise $z_0 \in A^s$). Thus without loss of generality, assume $w_n \notin A$ for all $n$.

For each $n \in \mathbb{N}$, there is a sequence $z_{n,j}$ of points of $A$ converging to $w_n$. It is OK to assume that all $w_n$ are distinct and all $z_{n,j}$ are distinct across the two indexes. Let $W_0=\left\{z_0\right\} \cup W_1 \cup W_2$ where $W_1=\left\{w_n: n \in \mathbb{N}\right\}$ and $W_2=\left\{z_{n,j}:n,j \in \mathbb{N}\right\}$. Then $W_0$ is a homeomorphic copy of the Arens’ space. $\blacksquare$

Remark
The above theorem is not valid outside of sequential spaces. Let $Z$ be a countable space with only one non-isolated point where $Z$ is not sequential (for example, the subspace $Z=\left\{\infty\right\} \cup (\mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N})$ of the Arens’ space). Clearly $Z$ contains no copy of the Arens’ space. Yet $Z$ is not Frechet (it is not even sequential).

Previous posts on sequential spaces and Frechet spaces:
Sequential spaces, I
Sequential spaces, II
Sequential spaces, III
Sequential spaces, IV
Sequential spaces, V
k-spaces, I
k-spaces, II

Reference

1. Engelking, R. General Topology, Revised and Completed edition, 1989, Heldermann Verlag, Berlin.
2. Willard, S., General Topology, 1970, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.