An observation about sequential spaces

This post is about an observation about sequential spaces. In a sequential space, non-trivial convergent sequences abound. Thus in the extreme case of there being no trivial convergent convergent sequences, the space in question must not be sequential. Specifically we observe that if X is a Hausdorff sequential space and if p \in X is a non-isolated point (i.e. the singleton set \left\{p\right\} is not open), there is a convergent sequence p_n of points of X-\left\{p\right\} such that p_n \mapsto p. Thus it is necessary condition that in a sequential space, there exist non-trivial convergent sequences at every non-isolated point. We present examples showing that this condition is not a sufficient condition for a space being sequential. As the following examples show, the property that there are non-trivial convergent sequences at every non-isolated is a rather weak property.

The first example is from the problem section of Mathematical Monthly in 1970 (see [2]). Let \mathbb{R} be the real line and let \mathbb{P} be the set of all irrational numbers. Let \mathbb{Q}=\mathbb{R}-\mathbb{P}. Let X=\mathbb{R} and define a new topology on X by calling a subset U \subset X open if and only if U=W-H where W is a usual open subset of the real line and H is a subset of \mathbb{P} that is at most countable. This new topology on the real line is finer than the Euclidean topology. Thus X is a Hausdorff space. Every point of X is a non-isolated point and is the the sequential limit of a sequence of rational numbers, satisfying the condition that every non-isolated point is the sequential limit of a non-trivial convergent sequence.

In the topology for X, every countably infinite subset of the set \mathbb{P} is closed in X. Thus no sequence of points of \mathbb{P} can converge to a point not in \mathbb{P}. Therefore \mathbb{P} is sequentially closed and non-closed in X, making X not a sequential space.

Not only that every countably infinite subset of \mathbb{P} is closed in X, every countably infinite subset of \mathbb{P} is relatively discrete. Then it follows that for every compact K \subset X, K \cap \mathbb{P} is finite (and is thus closed in K). Thus X is also not a k-space.

Another example is that of a product space. Any uncountable product where each factor has at least two points is not sequential. This follows from the fact that 2^{\omega_1} is not sequential (see Sequential spaces, IV). Furthermore, in any product space with infinitely many factors each of which has at least two points, every point is the sequential limit of a non-trivial convergent sequence. Thus any product space with uncountably many factors, each of which has at least two points, is another example of a non-sequential space where there are non-trivial convergent sequences at every point.

Previous posts on sequential spaces and k-spaces:
Sequential spaces, I
Sequential spaces, II
Sequential spaces, III
Sequential spaces, IV
Sequential spaces, V
k-spaces, I
k-spaces, II
A note about the Arens’ space

Reference

  1. Engelking, R. General Topology, Revised and Completed edition, 1989, Heldermann Verlag, Berlin.
  2. Henkel, D. Solution to Monthly Problem 5698, American Mathematical Monthly 77, p. 896, 1970
  3. Willard, S., General Topology, 1970, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
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