A Baire space is a topological space in which the intersection of any countable family of open and dense sets is dense (equivalently every non-empty open subset is of second category). One version of the Baire category theorem states that every complete metric space is a Baire space. Another common version states that every compact Hausdorff space is a Baire space. Another version states that every locally compact Hausdorff space is a Baire space. The commonality among these versions is the finite intersection property (whenever a collection of a certain type of sets satisfies the property that any finite subcollection has non-empty intersection, the whole collection has non-empty intersection). For each of these classes of spaces, in addition to countably compact spaces and pseudocompact spaces, Baire category theorem is derived from having one specific form of the finite intersection property. In this post, we explore this relationship.

In each of the following theorem pairs, the B Theorem follows from the A theorem. The A theorem is a form of the finite intersection property and the B theorem is a version of Baire category theorem.

Another interesting observation is that the finite intersection properties discussed here can give a stronger property than being a Baire space. This stronger property is defined by the Banach-Mazur game.

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**Theorem 1A**

Let be a metric space. Then the following conditions are equivalent.

- is a complete metric space.
- For each decreasing sequence of non-empty closed subsets of such that the diameters of the sets converge to zero, we have .

**Theorem 1B**

Every complete metric space is a Baire space.

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**Theorem 2A**

Let be a Hausdorff space. Then the following conditions are equivalent.

- is a compact space.
- For every family consisting of non-empty closed subsets of , if has the finite intersection property, then has non-empty intersection.

**Theorem 2B**

- Every compact Hausdorff space is a Baire space.
- Every locally compact Hausdorff space is a Baire space.

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**Theorem 3A**

Let be a Hausdorff space. Then the following conditions are equivalent.

- is a countably compact space.
- For every countable family consisting of non-empty closed subsets of , if has the finite intersection property, then has non-empty intersection.
- For each decreasing sequence of non-empty closed subsets of , we have .

**Theorem 3B**

Every countably compact Hausdorff space is a Baire space.

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**Theorem 4A**

Let be a regular space. The following conditions are equivalent:

- The space is pseudocompact.
- If is a family of non-empty open subsets of such that for each , then .
- If is a family of non-empty open subsets of such that has the finite intersection property, then .

**Theorem 4B**

Every regular pseudocompact space is a Baire space.

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**Remark**

Theorem 1A (the Cantor Theorem) can be found in Engelking (page 269 in [1]). Theorem 2A and Theorem 3A can also be found in Engelking (they are also proved in this post). Theorem 4B is also found in Engelking (Theorem 3.10.23 in page 207 of [1]) and is proved this post.

We would like to explicitly point out that between Thoerem 1A and Theorem 2A, none of the two theorems implies the other. For example, even though both complete metric spaces and compact Hausdorff spaces are Baire spaces, complete metric spaces are not necessarily compact and there are compact spaces that are not even metrizable. However, the finite intersection property of Theorem 2A implies that of Theorem 3A, which in turn implies the finite intersection property of Theorem 4A.

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**Baire Category Theorem**

The proofs of all four B theorems are amazingly similar. It is a matter of exploiting the fact that whenever a decreasing sequence of open sets satisfying the condition that each closure is a subset of the previous open set (and satisfying some other condition), the sequence of open sets has non-empty intersection. For example, for complete metric space, make sure that the closures of the open sets have diameters going to zero. For any reader who is new to this material, it will be very instructive to walk through the arguments of these Baire category theorems. The proof of Theorem 1A can be found this post. We prove Theorem 4B.

Recall that is a Baire space if is a countable family of open and dense sets in , is dense in , or equivalently every non-empty open subset of is of second category in . For more background about the concepts of Baire space and category (see [1] or this post).

**Proof of Theorem 4B**

Let be a regular pseudocompact space. Let be a countable family of open and dense sets in . Let be a non-empty open subset of . We show that has to contain points of . We let . We find open such that and (using regularity). Continue this inductive process, we have for each , an open such that and . Then we have a decreasing sequence of open sets as in condition 2 of Theorem 4A. Then we have . Since for each , we also have . It is clear that .

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**Banach-Mazur Game**

In proving the above versions of Baire category theorem, we can exploit the appropriate version of the finite intersection property – the situation that any nested decreasing sequence of open sets (under some specified conditions) has non-empty intersection. In fact, the finite intersection property offers more than just Baire category theorem; it can endow the space in question a type of completeness property stronger than Baire space. This completeness property is defined using the Banach-Mazur game.

The Banach-Mazur game is a two-person game played on a topological space. Let be a space. There are two players, and . They take turn choosing nested decreasing nonempty open subsets of as follows. The player goes first by choosing a nonempty open subset of . The player then chooses a nonempty open subset . At the n*th* play where , chooses an open set and chooses an open set . The player wins if . Otherwise the player wins. For more detailed discussion of the game, see this post.

One interesting point that we like to make about the finite intersection property ranging from Theorem 1A to Theorem 4A is that the player can always win the Banach-Mazur game as long as he/she plays the game according to each specific version of the finite intersection. For example, playing the game in a complete metric space, player always wins as long as he/she makes the diameters of the closures of the open sets going to zero. In a regular pseudocompact space, player can always win by making the closure of each of his/her open sets a subset of the previous move of other player.

A topological space in which the player has a winning strategy is said to be a weakly -favorable space. Thus complete metric spaces, compact Hausdorff spaces, locally compact Hausdorff spaces, countably compact Hausdorff spaces, regular pseudocompact spaces are all weakly -favorable.

There is characterization of Baire spaces in terms of the Banach-Mazur game. A space is a Baire space if and only if the player has no winning strategy in the Banach-Mazur game played on the space (see theorem 1 in this post). If the player can always win, then player can never win. In terms of game terminology, if player has a winning strategy, then the other player (player ) has no winning strategy. Thus a space is weakly -favorable implies that it is a Baire space. But the implication is not reversible (see example in this post).

So all the spaces discussed from Theorem 1A to Theorem 4A are all weakly -favorable, a property stronger than Baire spaces. These observations are summarized in the following theorems.

**Theorem 1C**

Every complete metric space is a weakly -favorable space.

**Theorem 2C**

- Every compact Hausdorff space is a weakly -favorable space.
- Every locally compact Hausdorff space is a weakly -favorable space.

**Theorem 3C**

Every countably compact Hausdorff space is a weakly -favorable space.

**Theorem 4C**

Every regular pseudocompact space is a weakly -favorable space.

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*Reference*

- Engelking, R.,
*General Topology, Revised and Completed edition*, Heldermann Verlag, Berlin, 1989. - Willard, S.,
*General Topology*, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1970.

We think that Theorem 3B is wrong. In the frame of its proof “Hausdorff” should be replaced to “regular” (or, at least, to “quasiregular”).

Oleg Okunev and Eugenii Reznichenko built a countably compact Hausdorff non Baire space $X$. Moreover, this space is $\omega$-bounded, that is each countable subset of $X$ has the compact closure.

Their proof is based on the following idea. Let $(X,\tau)$ be a countably compact Hausdorff space and $X=\bigcup X_n$ be a union of a monotonically increasing sequence of countably compact subsets such that each $X_n$ has the empty interior. The they added to the topology on the set $X$ the sets of the form $X\setminus X_n$.

They put $X_n=\bigcup\{Y_k:k\le n\}$, where $Y_k\subset [0,1]^{\omega_1}$ – this is the $\Sigma$-product of $\omega_1$ segments centered at the point having all the coordinates equal to $1/k$, provided $k>0$, and at the zero, provided $k=0$.