Countably paracompact spaces are discussed in a previous post. The discussion of countably paracompactness in the previous post is through discussing Dowker’s theorem. In this post, we discuss a few more facts that can be derived from Dowker’s theorem.
Essentially, Dowker’s theorem is the statement that for a normal space , the space is countably paracompact if any only if is normal for any infinite compact metric space. The following is the full statement of Dowker’s theorem. The long list of equivalent conditions is important for applications in various scenarios.
Theorem 1 (Dowker’s Theorem)
Let be a normal space. The following conditions are equivalent.
- The space is countably paracompact.
- Every countable open cover of has a point-finite open refinement.
- If is an open cover of , there exists an open refinement such that for each .
- The product space is normal for any infinite compact metric space .
- The product space is normal where is the closed unit interval with the usual Euclidean topology.
- The product space is normal where is a non-trivial convergent sequence with the limit point. Note that can be taken as a space homeomorphic to with the Euclidean topology.
- For each sequence of closed subsets of such that and , there exist open sets such that for each such that .
A Dowker space is any normal space that is not countably paracompact. The notion of Dowker space was motivated by Dowker’s theorem since such a space would be a normal space for which is not normal. The search for such a space took about 20 years from 1951 when C. H. Dowker proved the theorem to 1971 when M. E. Rudin constructed a ZFC example of a Dowker space.
Theorem 1 (Dowker’s theorem) is proved here and is further discussed in this previous post on countably paracompact space. The statement appears in Condition 6 here is not found in the previous version of the theorem. However, no extra effort is required to support it. Condition 5 trivially implies condition 6. The proof of condition 5 implying condition 7 (the proof of 4 implies 5 shown here) only requires that the product of and a convergent sequence is normal. So inserting condition 6 does not require extra proof.
Getting More from Dowker’s Theorem
As a result of Theorem 1, normal countably paracompact spaces are productive in normality with respect to compact metric spaces (condition 4 in Dowker’s theorem as stated above). Another way to look at condition 4 is that the normality in the product is a strong property. Whenever the product is normal, we know that each factor is normal. Dowker’s theorem tells us that whenever is normal and one of the factor is a compact metric space such as the unit interval , the other factor is countably paracompact. The fact can be extended. Even if the factors are not metric spaces, as long as one of the factors has a non-discrete point with “countable” tightness, normality of the product confers countably paracompactness on one of the factors. The following two theorems make this clear.
Suppose that the product is normal. If one of the factor contains a non-trivial convergent sequence, then the other factor is countably paracompact.
Proof of Theorem 2
Suppose contains a non-trivial convergent sequence. Let this sequence be denoted by such that the point is the limit point. Since is normal, both and are normal and that is normal. By Theorem 1, is countably paracompact.
Suppose that the product is normal. If one of the factor contains a countable subset that is non-discrete, then the other factor is countably paracompact.
Proof of Theorem 3
To discuss this fact, we need to turn to the generalized Dowker’s theorem, which is Theorem 2 in this previous post. We will not re-state the theorem. The crucial direction is in that theorem. To avoid confusion, we call these two conditions A7 and A4. The following are the conditions.
The product is a normal space for some space containing a non-discrete subspace of cardinality .
For each decreasing family of closed subsets of such that , there exists a family of open subsets of satisfying and for all .
Actually the proof in the previous post shows that A7 implies another condition that is equivalent to A4 for any infinite cardinal . In particular, A7 A4 would hold for the countably infinite . Note that under , A4 would be the same as condition 7 in Theorem 1 above.
Thus by Theorem 2 in this previous post for the countably infinite case and by Theorem 1 in this post, the theorem is established.
In Theorem 2, the second factor does not have to be a metric space. As long as it has a non-trivial convergent sequence, the normality of the product (a big if in some situation) implies countably paracompactness in the other factor.
Theorem 3 is essentially a corollary of the proof of Theorem 2 in the previous post. One way to look at Theorem 3 is that the normality of the product is a strong statement. If the product is normal and if one factor has a countable non-discrete subspace, then the other factor is countably paracompact. Another way to look at it is through the angle of Dowker spaces. By Dowker’s theorem (Theorem 1), the product of any Dowker space with any infinite compact metric space is not normal. The pathology is actually more severe. A Dowker space is severely lacking in ability to form normal product, as the following corollary makes clear.
If is a Dowker space, then is not normal for any space containing a non-discrete countable subspace.
Two more results are discussed. According to Dowker’s theorem, the product of a countably paracompact space and any compact metric space is normal. In particular, is normal. Theorem 5 is saying that with a little extra work, it can be shown that is normal. What makes this works is that the metric factor is -compact.
Let be a normal space. The following conditions are equivalent.
- The space is countably paracompact.
- The product space is normal for any non-discrete -compact metric space .
- The product space is normal where is the real number line with the usual Euclidean topology.
Proof of Theorem 5
Suppose that is countably paracompact. Let where each is compact. Since is a -compact metric space, it is Lindelof. The Lindelof number and the weight agree in a metric space. Thus has a countable base. According to Urysohn’s metrization theorem (discussed here), can be embedded into the compact metric space where each . For convenience, we consider as a subspace of . Furthermore, .
By Theorem 1, each is normal and that is normal. Note that is an -subset of the normal space . Since normality is passed to -subsets, is normal.
Note. For a proof that -subsets of normal spaces are normal, see 2.7.2(b) on p. 112 of Englelking .
Suppose that is normal. Then is normal since it is a closed subspace of . By Theorem 1, is countably paracompact.
Let be a normal space. Let be a non-discrete -compact metric space. Then is a normal space if and only if is countably paracompact.
Proof of Theorem 6
Let where each is compact. As in the proof of Theorem 5, we use the compact metric space where each .
Suppose that is normal. Since is a non-discrete metric space, contains a countable non-discrete subspace. Then by either Theorem 2 or Theorem 3, is countably paracompact.
By Theorem 1, is normal. Note that is normal since is a compact metric space. By Theorem 1 again, is countably paracompact.
As in the proof of Theorem 5, we can consider as a subspace of . Furthermore, .
Note that is -subset of the countably paracompact space . Since countably paracompactness is passed to -subsets, we conclude that is countably paracompact.
Note. For a proof that countably paracompactness is passed to -subsets, see the proof that paracompactness is passed to -subsets in this previous post. Just apply the same proof but start with a countable open cover.
For the other direction, suppose that is countably paracompact. Since is a closed subspace of with and is a copy of , is countably paracompact. Then by Theorem 5, is a normal space.
Theorem 5 seems like an extension of Theorem 1. But the amount of extra work is very little. So normal countably paracompact spaces are productive with not just compact metric spaces but also with -compact metric spaces. The -compactness is absolutely crucial. The product of a normal countably paracompact space with a metric space does not have to be normal. For example, the Michael line is paracompact and thus countably paracompact. The product of and metric space is not necessarily normal (discussed here). However, the product of and or other -compact metric space is normal.
Recall that a space is called a Dowker space if it is normal and not countably paracompact. For the type of product discussed in Theorem 6, it cannot be Dowker (if it is normal, it is countably paracompact). The two notions are the same with such product . Theorem 6 actually holds for a wider class than indicated. The following is Corollary 4.3 in .
Let be a normal space. Let be a non-discrete metric space. Then is a normal space if and only if is countably paracompact.
So -compactness is not necessary for Theorem 6. However, when the metric factor is -compact, the proof is simplified considerably. For the full proof, see Corollary 4.3 in .
Among the products , the two notions of normality and countably paracompactness are the same as long as one factor is normal and the other factor is a non-discrete metric space. For such product, determining normality is equivalent to determining countably paracompactness, a covering property. In showing countably paracompactness, a shrinking property as well as a condition about decreasing sequence of closed sets being expanded by open sets (see Theorem 4 and Theorem 5 in this previous post) can be used.
- Engelking R., General Topology, Revised and Completed edition, Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Heldermann Verlag, Berlin, 1989.
- Przymusinski T. C., Products of Normal Spaces, Handbook of Set-Theoretic Topology (K. Kunen and J. E. Vaughan, eds), Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam, 781-826, 1984.
2017 – Dan Ma