# Basic topological properties of Corson compact spaces

A compact space is said to be a Corson compact space if it can be embedded in a $\Sigma$-product of real lines. Corson compact spaces play an important role in functional analysis. Corson compact spaces are also very interesting from a topological point of view. In this post, we discuss several basic topological properties of Corson compact spaces, some of which have been discussed and proved in some previous posts.

Links to other posts on Corson compact spaces are given throughout this post (as relevant results are discussed). A listing of these previous posts is also given at the end of this post.

For any infinite cardinal number $\kappa$, the $\Sigma$-product of $\kappa$ many copies of $\mathbb{R}$ is the following subspace of the product space $\mathbb{R}^\kappa$:

$\Sigma(\kappa)=\left\{x \in \mathbb{R}^\kappa: x_\alpha \ne 0 \text{ for at most countably many } \alpha < \kappa \right\}$

A compact space is said to be a Corson compact space if it can be embedded in $\Sigma(\kappa)$ for some infinite cardinal $\kappa$.

____________________________________________________________________

Some examples of Corson compact spaces

When $\kappa=\omega$, $\Sigma(\omega)$ is simply $\mathbb{R}^\omega$, the product of countably many copies of the real lines. Any compact metrizable space can be embedded in $\mathbb{R}^\omega$; see Theorem 4.2.10 in [3]. Thus any compact metrizable space is Corson compact.

One easily described non-metrizable Corson compact space is the one-point compactification of an uncountable discrete space. Let $\tau$ be an uncountable cardinal number. Let $D_\tau$ be the discrete space of cardinality $\tau$. Let $p$ be a point not in $D_\tau$. Let $A_\tau=D_\tau \cup \left\{p \right\}$. Consider a topology on $A_\tau$ such that $D_\tau$ is discrete as before and any open neighborhood of $p$ has the form $\left\{p \right\} \cup C$ where $C \subset D_\tau$ and $D_\tau-C$ is finite. The space $A_\tau$ is better known as the one-point compactification of a discrete space of cardinality $\tau$. To see that $A_\tau$ is embedded in $\Sigma(\tau)$, for each $\alpha<\tau$, define $f_\alpha:\tau \rightarrow \left\{0,1 \right\}$ such that $f_\alpha(\alpha)=1$ and $f_\alpha(\beta)=0$ for all $\beta \ne \alpha$. Furthermore, let $g:\tau \rightarrow \left\{0,1 \right\}$ be defined by $g(\beta)=0$ for all $\beta<\tau$. It is easy to clear that $K=\left\{f_\alpha: \alpha<\tau \right\} \cup \left\{g \right\}$ is a subspace of $\Sigma(\tau)$. Note that $\left\{f_\alpha: \alpha<\tau \right\}$ is a discrete space of cardinality $\tau$ and that any open neighborhood of $g$ contains all but finitely many $f_\alpha$. Thus $K$ is homeomorphic to $A_\tau$.

Another non-metrizable Corson compact space is defined and discussed in this previous post.

____________________________________________________________________

Some basic operations

Corson compact spaces behave nicely with respect to some natural topological operations such as the following:

1. Corson compactness is hereditary with respect to closed subspaces.
2. Corson compactness is preserved by taking continuous images.
3. Corson compactness is preserved by taking countable products.

It is clear that closed subspaces of every Corson compact space are also Corson compact. The fact that any continuous image of a Corson compact space is Corson compact (bullet point #2) is established in Theorem 6.2 of [6].

We prove bullet point #3, that the Tychonoff product of countably many Corson compact spaces is Corson compact. Let $K_1,K_2,K_3,\cdots$ be compact spaces such that each $K_j$ is a subspace of $\Sigma(\tau_j)$ for some infinite cardinal $\tau_j$. We show that the product $\prod_{j=1}^\infty K_j$ is Corson compact. Let $\tau$ be the cardinality of $\bigcup_{j=1}^\infty \tau_j$. Note that $\prod_{j=1}^\infty K_j$ is a compact subspace of $\prod_{j=1}^\infty \Sigma(\tau_j)$. In turn, $\prod_{j=1}^\infty \Sigma(\tau_j)$ is identical to $\Sigma(\tau)$. Thus $\prod_{j=1}^\infty K_j$ is Corson compact.

____________________________________________________________________

Basic properties inherited from $\Sigma$-products

Some properties of Corson compact spaces are inherited from the $\Sigma$-products of real line. For example, we have the following two facts about $\Sigma$-products.

• The $\Sigma$-product of first countable spaces is a Frechet-Urysohn space.
• The $\Sigma$-product of separable metric spaces is monolithic.

Both of the above two properties are hereditary. Thus we have the following:

1. Every Corson compact space is a Frechet-Urysohn space.
2. Every Corson compact space is monolithic.

A space $X$ is monolithic if for each subspace $Y$ of $X$, the density of $Y$ coincides with the network weight of $Y$, i.e., $d(Y)=nw(Y)$. A space $X$ is strongly monolithic if for each subspace $Y$ of $X$, the density of $Y$ coincides with the weight of $Y$, i.e., $d(Y)=w(Y)$. Monolithic spaces are discussed in this previous post. For compact spaces, the notion of being monolithic and the notion of being strongly monolithic coincide. One obvious consequence of bullet point #5 is that being separable is an indicator of metrizability among Corson compact spaces. The following bullet point captures this observation.

1. Let $X$ be a Corson compact space. Then $X$ is metrizable if and only if $X$ is separable. See Proposition 1 in this previous post.

A space $Y$ is said to be Frechet space (also called Frechet-Urysohn space) if for each $y \in Y$ and for each $M \subset Y$, if $y \in \overline{M}$, then there exists a sequence $\left\{y_n \in M: n=1,2,3,\cdots \right\}$ such that the sequence converges to $y$. Thus any compact space that is not a Frechet-Urysohn space is not Corson compact. A handy example is the compact space $\omega_1+1$ with the order topology. Note that $\omega_1+1$ is monolithic. Thus monolithic compact spaces need not be Corson compact.

An extreme example of a compact non-Frechet-Urysohn space is one that has no non-trivial convergent sequence. For example, take $\beta \omega$, the Stone-Cech compactification of a countable discrete space, which has no non-trivial convergent sequences at any point. Thus $\beta \omega$ is not Corson compact.

Every Corson compact space has a $G_\delta$ point. It then follows that every Corson compact space has a dense set of $G_\delta$ points (see this previous post). In a compact space, there is a countable local base at every $G_\delta$ point. Thus we have the following bullet point.

1. Every Corson compact space has a dense first countable subspace.

However, it is not true that every Corson compact space has a dense metrizable subspace. See Theorem 9.14 in [7] for an example of a first countable Corson compact space with no dense metrizable subspace.

____________________________________________________________________

Remarks

The results indicated here and proved in the previous posts represent a small sample of results on Corson compact spaces (and just focusing on the topological aspects). Many results on Corson compact spaces and Eberlein compact spaces are very deep results. The chapter c-16 in [5] is a good introduction. Some of the results proven in this and other posts in this blog are mentioned in [5] without proof. Interesting characterizations of Corson compact spaces are presented in [4].

In closing, we mention one more property. The authors in [1] showed that for any Corson compact space $X$, the function space $C_p(X)$ with the pointwise convergence topology is a Lindelof space. Thus we have the following bullet point.

1. The function space $C_p(X)$ is Lindelof for every Corson compact space $X$.

____________________________________________________________________

Blog posts on Corson compact spaces

____________________________________________________________________

Reference

1. Alster, K., Pol, R., On function spaces of compact subspaces of $\Sigma$-products of the real line, Fund. Math., 107, 35-46, 1980.
2. Arkhangelskii, A. V., Topological Function Spaces, Mathematics and Its Applications Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1992.
3. Engelking, R., General Topology, Revised and Completed edition, Heldermann Verlag, Berlin, 1989.
4. Gruenhage, G., Covering properties on $X^2 \backslash \Delta$, W-sets, and compact subsets of $\Sigma$-products, Topology Appl., 17, 287-304, 1984.
5. Hart, K. P., Nagata J. I., Vaughan, J. E., editors, Encyclopedia of General Topology, First Edition, Elsevier Science Publishers B. V, Amsterdam, 2003.
6. Michael, E., Rudin, M. E., A note on Eberlein compacts, Pacific J. Math., 128, 149-156 1987.
7. Todorcevic, S., Trees and Linearly Ordered Sets, Handbook of Set-Theoretic Topology (K. Kunen and J. E. Vaughan, eds), Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam, 235-293, 1984.

____________________________________________________________________
$\copyright \ 2014 \text{ by Dan Ma}$

# Every Corson compact space has a dense first countable subspace

In any topological space $X$, a point $x \in X$ is a $G_\delta$ point if the one-point set $\left\{ x \right\}$ is the intersection of countably many open subsets of $X$. It is well known that any compact Hausdorff space is first countable at every $G_\delta$ point, i.e., if a point of a compact space is a $G_\delta$ point, then there is a countable local base at that point. It is also well known that uncountable power of first countable spaces can fail to be first countable at every point. For example, no point of the compact space $[0,1]^{\omega_1}$ can be a $G_\delta$ point. In this post, we show that any Corson compact space has a dense set of $G_\delta$ point. Therefore, any Corson compact space is first countable on a dense set (see Corollary 4 below). However, it is not true that every Corson compact space has a dense metrizable subspace. See Theorem 9.14 in [2] for an example of a first countable Corson compact space with no dense metrizable subspace. A list of other blog posts on Corson compact spaces is given at the end of this post.

The fact that every Corson compact space has a dense first countable subspace is taken as a given in the literature. For one example, see chapter c-16 of [1]. Even though Corollary 4 is a basic fact of Corson compact spaces, the proof involves much more than a direct application of the relevant definitions. The proof given here is intended to be an online resource for any one interested in knowing more about Corson compact spaces.

For any infinite cardinal number $\kappa$, the $\Sigma$-product of $\kappa$ many copies of $\mathbb{R}$ is the following subspace of $\mathbb{R}^\kappa$:

$\Sigma(\kappa)=\left\{x \in \mathbb{R}^\kappa: x_\alpha \ne 0 \text{ for at most countably many } \alpha < \kappa \right\}$

A compact space is said to be a Corson compact space if it can be embedded in $\Sigma(\kappa)$ for some infinite cardinal $\kappa$.

For each $x \in \Sigma(\kappa)$, let $S(x)$ denote the support of the point $x$, i.e., $S(x)$ is the set of all $\alpha<\kappa$ such that $x_\alpha \ne 0$.

Proposition 1
Let $Y$ be a Corson compact space. Then $Y$ has a $G_\delta$ point.

Proof of Proposition 1
If $Y$ is finite, then every point is isolated and is thus a $G_\delta$ point. Assume $Y$ is infinite. Let $\kappa$ be an infinite cardinal number such that $Y \subset \Sigma(\kappa)$. For $f,g \in Y$, define $f \le g$ if the following holds:

$\forall \ \alpha \in S(f)$, $f(\alpha)=g(\alpha)$

It is relatively straightforward to verify that the following three properties are satisfied:

• $f \le f$ for all $f \in Y$. (reflexivity)
• For all $f,g \in Y$, if $f \le g$ and $g \le f$, then $f=g$. (antisymmetry)
• For all $f,g,h \in Y$, if $f \le g$ and $g \le h$, then $f \le h$. (transitivity)

Thus $\le$ as defined here is a partial order on the compact space $Y$. Let $C \subset Y$ such that $C$ is a chain with respect to $\le$, i.e., for all $f,g \in C$, $f \le g$ or $g \le f$. We show that $C$ has an upper bound (in $Y$) with respect to the partial order $\le$. We need this for an argument using Zorn’s lemma.

Let $W=\bigcup_{f \in C} S(f)$. For each $\alpha \in W$, choose some $f \in C$ such that $\alpha \in S(f)$ and define $u_\alpha=f_\alpha$. For all $\alpha \notin W$, define $u_\alpha=0$. Because $C$ is a chain, the point $u$ is well-defined. It is also clear that $f \le u$ for all $f \in C$. If $u \in Y$, then $u$ is a desired upper bound of $C$. So assume $u \notin Y$. It follows that $u$ is a limit point of $C$, i.e., every open set containing $u$ contains a point of $C$ different from $u$. Hence $u$ is a limit point of $Y$ too. Since $Y$ is compact, $u \in Y$, a contradiction. Thus it must be that $u \in Y$. Thus every chain in the partially ordered set $(Y,\le)$ has an upper bound. By Zorn’s lemma, there exists at least one maximal element with respect to the partial order $\le$, i.e., there exists $t \in Y$ such that $f \le t$ for all $f \in Y$.

We now show that $t$ is a $G_\delta$ point in $Y$. Let $S(t)=\left\{\alpha_1,\alpha_2,\alpha_3,\cdots \right\}$. For each $p \in \mathbb{R}$ and for each positive integer $n$, let $B_{p,n}$ be the open interval $B_{p,n}=(p-\frac{1}{n},p+\frac{1}{n})$. For each positive integer $n$, define the open set $O_n$ as follows:

$O_n=(B_{t_{\alpha_1},n} \times \cdots \times B_{t_{\alpha_n},n} \times \prod_{\alpha<\kappa,\alpha \notin \left\{ \alpha_1,\cdots,\alpha_n \right\}} \mathbb{R}) \cap Y$

Note that $t \in \bigcap_{n=1}^\infty O_n$. Because $t$ is a maximal element, note that if $g \in Y$ such that $g_\alpha=t_\alpha$ for all $\alpha \in S(t)$, then it must be the case that $g=t$. Thus if $g \in \bigcap_{n=1}^\infty O_n$, then $g_\alpha=t_\alpha$ for all $\alpha \in S(t)$. We have $\left\{t \right\}= \bigcap_{n=1}^\infty O_n$. $\blacksquare$

Lemma 2
Let $Y$ be a compact space such that for every non-empty compact subspace $K$ of $Y$, there exists a $G_\delta$ point in $K$. Then every non-empty open subset of $Y$ contains a $G_\delta$ point.

Proof of Lemma 2
Let $U_1$ be a non-empty open subset of the compact space $Y$. If there exists $y \in U_1$ such that $\left\{y \right\}$ is open in $Y$, then $y$ is a $G_\delta$ point. So assume that every point of $U_1$ is a non-isolated point of $Y$. By regularity, choose an open subset $U_2$ of $Y$ such that $\overline{U_2} \subset U_1$. Continue in the same manner and obtain a decreasing sequence $U_1,U_2,U_3,\cdots$ of open subsets of $Y$ such that $\overline{U_{n+1}} \subset U_n$ for each positive integer $n$. Then $K=\bigcap_{n=1}^\infty \overline{U_n}$ is a non-empty closed subset of $Y$ and thus compact. By assumption, $K$ has a $G_\delta$ point, say $p \in K$.

Then $\left\{p \right\}=\bigcap_{n=1}^\infty W_n$ where each $W_n$ is open in $K$. For each $n$, let $V_n$ be open in $Y$ such that $W_n=V_n \cap K$. For each $n$, let $V_n^*=V_n \cap U_n$, which is open in $Y$. Then $\left\{p \right\}=\bigcap_{n=1}^\infty V_n^*$. This means that $p$ is a $G_\delta$ point in the compact space $Y$. Note that $p \in U_1$, the open set we start with. This completes the proof that every non-empty open subset of $Y$ contains a $G_\delta$ point. $\blacksquare$

Proposition 3
Let $Y$ be a Corson compact space. Then $Y$ has a dense set of $G_\delta$ points.

Proof of Proposition 3
Note that Corson compactness is hereditary with respect to closed sets. Thus every compact subspace of $Y$ is also Corson compact. By Proposition 1, every compact subspace of $Y$ has a $G_\delta$ point. By Lemma 2, $Y$ has a dense set of $G_\delta$ points. $\blacksquare$

Corollary 4
Every Corson compact space has a dense first countable subspace.

____________________________________________________________________

Blog posts on Corson compact spaces

____________________________________________________________________

Reference

1. Hart, K. P., Nagata J. I., Vaughan, J. E., editors, Encyclopedia of General Topology, First Edition, Elsevier Science Publishers B. V, Amsterdam, 2003.
2. Todorcevic, S., Trees and Linearly Ordered Sets, Handbook of Set-Theoretic Topology (K. Kunen and J. E. Vaughan, eds), Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam, 235-293, 1984.

____________________________________________________________________
$\copyright \ 2014 \text{ by Dan Ma}$

# An example of a non-metrizable Corson compact space

A compact space is said to be a Corson compact space if it can be embedded in a $\Sigma$-product of real lines. All compact metric spaces are Corson. In this post, we present a non-metrizable example of a Corson compact space found in the literature, found in [1]. A listing of other blog posts on Corson compact spaces is given at the end of this post.

For any infinite cardinal number $\kappa$, the $\Sigma$-product of $\kappa$ many copies of $\mathbb{R}$ is the following subspace of $\mathbb{R}^\kappa$:

$\Sigma(\kappa)=\left\{x \in \mathbb{R}^\kappa: x_\alpha \ne 0 \text{ for at most countably many } \alpha < \kappa \right\}$

A compact space is said to be a Corson compact space if it can be embedded in $\Sigma(\kappa)$ for some infinite cardinal $\kappa$. When $\kappa=\omega$, $\Sigma(\omega)$ is simply $\mathbb{R}^\omega$, the product of countably many copies of the real lines. Any compact metrizable space can be embedded in $\mathbb{R}^\omega$; see Theorem 4.2.10 in [2]. Thus any compact metrizable space is Corson compact. One easily described non-metrizable Corson compact space is the one-point compactification of an uncountable discrete space.

____________________________________________________________________

Describing the example

We define a Corson compact space $C$ that is not metrizable. To define the example, let $W$ be a set of real numbers such that the cardinality of $W$ is $\omega_1$. Let $\ll$ be a well ordering on the set $W$ such that for each $y \in W$, the initial segment $S_y=\left\{x \in W: x \ll y \right\}$ is countable. In other words, the well-ordered set $(W,\ll)$ is of type $\omega_1$. Let $<$ be the usual order on the real numbers. Consider the following collection of subsets of $W$:

$\mathcal{H}=\left\{H \subset W: \text{ the order } < \text{ coincides with the well order } \ll \text{ on the set } H \right\}$

Note that $H \in \mathcal{H}$ if and only if this condition holds: if $x,y \in W$ with $x \ne y$, then

$x if and only if $x \ll y$.

Thus by default, $\varnothing \in \mathcal{H}$ and $\left\{ x \right\} \in \mathcal{H}$ for any $x \in W$. More importantly, every $H \in \mathcal{H}$ is a countable set. To see this, suppose that $J \subset W$ is uncountable. Then $J$ has a two-sided limit point, say $p$ (see this previous post). It does not matter whether $p \in J$. What matters is that for any open interval $(a,b)$ with $p \in (a,b)$, both $(a,p)$ and $(p,b)$ contain points of $J$. Then there is a sequence $\left\{x_n: n=1,2,3,\cdots \right\}$ of points of $J$ converging to $p$ and there is a sequence $\left\{y_n: n=1,2,3,\cdots \right\}$ of points of $J$ converging to $p$ such that

$y_1

Suppose that $(J,<)$ is a well-ordered set. Let $t \in J$ such that $t$ is the least number that is an upper bound of $Y=\left\{y_n: n=1,2,3,\cdots \right\}$. It must be the case that $p \le t$. If $p=t$, then $p$ is an element of $J$ that has no immediate successor, a contradiction. If $p, then $t$ is not the least upper bound of $Y$. It follows that $(J,<)$ cannot be a well-ordered set. Then the orders $<$ and $\ll$ do not agree on the set $J$. Thus no uncountable set can be in the family $\mathcal{H}$.

Consider the compact product space $X=\left\{0,1 \right\}^{W}$. For each $f \in X$, let $S(f)$ be the support of the point $f$, i.e., the set of all $x \in W$ such that $f(x) \ne 0$. Consider the following subspace of $X$:

$C=\left\{f \in X: S(f) \in \mathcal{H} \right\}$

Note that $z \in C$ where $z(x)=0$ for all $x \in W$ and that for each $t \in W$, $f_t \in C$ where $f_t(t)=1$ and $f_t(x)=0$ for all $x \in W-\left\{t \right\}$. Since each $H \in \mathcal{H}$ is countable, $C$ is a subspace of the $\Sigma$-product $\Sigma(\omega_1)$. Since $C$ is a subspace of the compact space $X=\left\{0,1 \right\}^{W}$, in order to show that $C$ is compact, we only need to show that $C$ is closed in $X$. To this end, let $g \in X-C$. Then $(S(g),<)$ and $(S(g),\ll)$ do not coincide. Then there exist $c,d \in S(g)$ such that $c and $c \ll d$ cannot both be true. Suppose $c and $c \not \ll d$. Consider the following open subset of $X$:

$U=\left\{f \in X: f(c)=f(d)=1 \right\}$

It is clear that $U \cap C=\varnothing$. Thus $C$ is a closed subspace of $X=\left\{0,1 \right\}^{W}$. Since $C$ is a compact space and is a subspace of a $\Sigma$-product of real lines, $C$ is a Corson compact space.

If a compact space is metrizable then it is separable. Thus if we can show that $C$ is not separable, then $C$ is not metrizable. We show that no countable subspace of $C$ can be dense in $C$. Let $D$ be a countable subspace of $C$. Let $S=\bigcup_{f \in D} S(f)$, which is countable. Choose $x \in W-S$. Then the open set $\left\{g \in C: g(x)=1 \right\}$ contains no point of $D$. This completes the proof that $C$ is a non-metrizable Corson compact space.

____________________________________________________________________

Blog posts on Corson compact spaces

____________________________________________________________________

Reference

1. Alster, K., Pol, R., On function spaces of compact subspaces of $\Sigma$-products of the real line, Fund. Math., 107, 35-46 1980.
2. Engelking, R., General Topology, Revised and Completed edition, Heldermann Verlag, Berlin, 1989.

____________________________________________________________________
$\copyright \ 2014 \text{ by Dan Ma}$

# A short note on monolithic spaces

In a metrizable space, the density, the network weight and the weight (and several other cardinal functions) always agree (see Theorem 4.1.15 in [2]). This is not the case for topological spaces in general. One handy example is the Sorgenfrey line where the density is $\omega$ (the Sorgenfrey line is separable) and the network weight is continuum (the cardinality of real line). In a monolithic space, the density character and the network weight for any subspace always coincide. Thus metrizable spaces are monolithic. One interesting example of a monolithic space is the $\Sigma$-product of real lines. A compact space is said to be a Corson compact space if it can be embedded in a $\Sigma$-product of real lines. Thus Corson compact spaces are monolithic spaces. As a result, any separable subspace of a Corson compact space is metrizable. On the other hand, any separable non-metrizable compact space cannot be Corson compact. This is an introductory discussion of monolithic spaces and is the first post in a series of posts on Corson compact spaces. A listing of other blog posts on Corson compact spaces is given at the end of this post.

____________________________________________________________________

Density and Network Weight

For any set $A$, the symbol $\lvert A \lvert$ denotes the cardinality of the set $A$. For any space $X$, the density of $X$, denoted by $d(X)$ is the minimum cardinality of a dense subset, i.e., $d(X)$ is the least cardinal number $\kappa$ such that if $Y$ is dense subset of $X$, then $\kappa \le \lvert Y \lvert$. If $X$ is separable, then $d(X)=\omega$.

For any space $X$, a family $\mathcal{N}$ of subsets of $X$ is a network in the space $X$ if for any $x \in X$ and for any open subset $U$ of $X$ with $x \in U$, there exists some $J \in \mathcal{N}$ such that $x \in J \subset U$. In other words, any non-empty open subset of $X$ is the union of elements of the network $\mathcal{N}$. The network weight of $X$, denoted by $nw(X)$, is the minimum cardinality of a network in the space $X$, i.e., $nw(X)$ is the least cardinal number $\kappa$ such that if $\mathcal{N}$ is a network for the space $X$, then $\kappa \le \lvert \mathcal{N} \lvert$.

For any space $X$, the weight of $X$, denoted by $w(X)$, is the minimum cardinality of a base for the space $X$, i.e., $w(X)$ is the least cardinal number $\kappa$ such that if $\mathcal{B}$ is a base for the space $X$, then $\kappa \le \lvert \mathcal{B} \lvert$. If $w(X)=\omega$, then $X$ is a space with a countable base (it is a separable metric space). If $nw(X)=\omega$, $X$ is a space with a countable network. Having a countable network is a strong property, it implies that the space is hereditarily Lindelof (hence hereditarily normal) and hereditarily separable (see this previous post). However, having a countable network is not as strong as having a countable base. The function space $C_p(\mathbb{R})$ has a countable network (see this previous post) and fails to be first countable at every point.

If $\mathcal{N}$ is a network for the space $X$, then picking a point from each set in $\mathcal{N}$ will produce a dense subset of $X$. Then $d(X) \le nw(X)$ for any space $X$. In general $nw(X) \le d(X)$ does not hold, as indicated by the Sorgenfrey line. Monolithic spaces form a class of spaces in which the inequality $nw \le d$ holds for each space in the class and for each subspace of such a space.

Likewise, the inequality $d(X) \le w(X)$ always holds. The inequality $w(X) \le d(X)$ only holds for a restricted class of spaces. On the other hand, it is clear that $nw(X) \le w(X)$ for any space $X$.

____________________________________________________________________

Monolithic Spaces

Let $\tau$ be an infinite cardinal number. A space $X$ is said to be $\tau$-monolithic if for each subspace $Y$ of $X$ with $\lvert Y \lvert \le \tau$, $nw(\overline{Y}) \le \tau$. It is easy to verify that the following two statements are equivalent:

1. $X$ is $\tau$-monolithic for each infinite cardinal number $\tau$.
2. For each subspace $Y$ of $X$, $d(Y)=nw(Y)$.

A space $X$ is monolithic if either statement 1 or statement 2 holds. In a $\omega$-monolithic space, any separable subspace has a countable network.

A space $X$ is said to be strongly $\tau$-monolithic if for each subspace $Y$ of $X$ with $\lvert Y \lvert \le \tau$, $w(\overline{Y}) \le \tau$. It is easy to verify that the following two statements are equivalent:

1. $X$ is strongly $\tau$-monolithic for each infinite cardinal number $\tau$.
2. For each subspace $Y$ of $X$, $d(Y)=w(Y)$.

A space $X$ is strongly monolithic if either statement 3 or statement 4 holds. In a strongly $\omega$-monolithic space, any separable subspace is metrizable. It is clear that any strongly monolithic space is monolithic. As indicated below, $C_p(\mathbb{R})$ is an example of a monolithic space that is not strongly monolithic. However, the two notions coincide for compact spaces. Note that for any compact space, the weight and network weight coincide. Thus if a compact space is monolithic, it is strongly monolithic.

It is also clear that the property of being monolithic is hereditary. Monolithicity is a notion used in $C_p$-theory and the study of Corson compact spaces (see [1]).

____________________________________________________________________

Examples

Some examples of monolithic spaces are:

• Metrizable spaces.
• Any space with a countable network.
• $\Sigma$-product of separable metric spaces.
• The space $\omega_1$ of countable ordinals.

In fact, with the exception of the spaces with countable networks, the above examples are strongly monolithic. It is well known that the density and weight always agree for metrizable space. $\Sigma$-product of separable metric spaces is strongly monolithic (shown in this subsequent post). In the space $\omega_1$, any countable subset is separable and metrizable and any uncountable subset has both density and weight $=\omega_1$.

If $X$ is a space with a countable network, then for any subspace $Y$, $d(Y)=nw(Y)=\omega$. Thus any space with a countable network is monolithic. However, any space that has a countable network but is not metrizable is not strongly monolithic, e.g., the function space $C_p(\mathbb{R})$. The following proposition about compact monolithic spaces is useful.

Proposition 1
Let $X$ be a compact and monolithic space. Then $X$ is metrizable if and only if $X$ is separable.

Proof of Proposition 1
For the $\Longrightarrow$ direction, note that any compact metrizable space is separable (monolithicity is not needed). For the $\Longleftarrow$ direction, note that any separable monolithic space has a countable network. Any compact space with a countable network is metrizable (see here). $\blacksquare$

Now consider some spaces that are not monolithic. As indicated above, any space in which the density does not agree with the network weight (in the space or in a subspace) is not monolithic. Proposition 1 indicates that any separable non-metrizable compact space is not monolithic. Examples include the Alexandroff double arrow space ( see here) and the product space $I^{\omega_1}$ where $I$ is the closed unit interval $[0,1]$ with the usual Euclidean topology.

Interestingly, “compact” in Proposition 1 can be replaced by pseudocompact because of the following:

Proposition 2
Let $X$ be a separable pseudocompact and monolithic space. Then $X$ is compact.

Proof of Proposition 2
Any separable monolithic space has a countable network. Any space with a countable network is Lindelof (and hence metacompact). Any pseudocompact metacompact space is compact (see here). $\blacksquare$

____________________________________________________________________

Blog posts on Corson compact spaces

____________________________________________________________________

Reference

1. Arkhangelskii, A. V., Topological Function Spaces, Mathematics and Its Applications Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1992.
2. Engelking, R., General Topology, Revised and Completed edition, Heldermann Verlag, Berlin, 1989.

____________________________________________________________________
$\copyright \ 2014 \text{ by Dan Ma}$