# Normality in Cp(X)

Any collectionwise normal space is a normal space. Any perfectly normal space is a hereditarily normal space. In general these two implications are not reversible. In function spaces $C_p(X)$, the two implications are reversible. There is a normal space that is not countably paracompact (such a space is called a Dowker space). If a function space $C_p(X)$ is normal, it is countably paracompact. Thus normality in $C_p(X)$ is a strong property. This post draws on Dowker’s theorem and other results, some of them are previously discussed in this blog, to discuss this remarkable aspect of the function spaces $C_p(X)$.

Since we are discussing function spaces, the domain space $X$ has to have sufficient quantity of real-valued continuous functions, e.g. there should be enough continuous functions to separate the points from closed sets. The ideal setting is the class of completely regular spaces (also called Tychonoff spaces). See here for a discussion on completely regular spaces in relation to function spaces.

Let $X$ be a completely regular space. Let $C(X)$ be the set of all continuous functions from $X$ into the real line $\mathbb{R}$. When $C(X)$ is endowed with the pointwise convergence topology, the space is denoted by $C_p(X)$ (see here for further comments on the definition of the pointwise convergence topology).

When Function Spaces are Normal

Let $X$ be a completely regular space. We discuss these four facts of $C_p(X)$:

1. If the function space $C_p(X)$ is normal, then $C_p(X)$ is countably paracompact.
2. If the function space $C_p(X)$ is hereditarily normal, then $C_p(X)$ is perfectly normal.
3. If the function space $C_p(X)$ is normal, then $C_p(X)$ is collectionwise normal.
4. Let $X$ be a normal space. If $C_p(X)$ is normal, then $X$ has countable extent, i.e. every closed and discrete subset of $X$ is countable, implying that $X$ is collectionwise normal.

Fact #1 and Fact #2 rely on a representation of $C_p(X)$ as a product space with one of the factors being the real line. For $x \in X$, let $Y_x=\left\{f \in C_p(X): f(x)=0 \right\}$. Then $C_p(X) \cong Y_x \times \mathbb{R}$. This representation is discussed here.

Another useful tool is Dowker’s theorem, which essentially states that for any normal space $W$, the space $W$ is countably paracompact if and only if $W \times C$ is normal for all compact metric space $C$ if and only if $W \times [0,1]$ is normal. For the full statement of the theorem, see Theorem 1 in this previous post, which has links to the proofs and other discussion.

To show Fact #1, suppose that $C_p(X)$ is normal. Immediately we make use of the representation $C_p(X) \cong Y_x \times \mathbb{R}$ where $x \in X$. Since $Y_x \times \mathbb{R}$ is normal, $Y_x \times [0,1]$ is also normal. By Dowker’s theorem, $Y_x$ is countably paracompact. Note that $Y_x$ is a closed subspace of the normal $C_p(X)$. Thus $Y_x$ is also normal.

One more helpful tool is Theorem 5 in in this previous post, which is like an extension of Dowker’s theorem, which states that a normal space $W$ is countably paracompact if and only if $W \times T$ is normal for any $\sigma$-compact metric space $T$. This means that $Y_x \times \mathbb{R} \times \mathbb{R}$ is normal.

We want to show $C_p(X) \cong Y_x \times \mathbb{R}$ is countably paracompact. Since $Y_x \times \mathbb{R} \times \mathbb{R}$ is normal (based on the argument in the preceding paragraph), $(Y_x \times \mathbb{R}) \times [0,1]$ is normal. Thus according to Dowker’s theorem, $C_p(X) \cong Y_x \times \mathbb{R}$ is countably paracompact.

For Fact #2, a helpful tool is Katetov’s theorem (stated and proved here), which states that for any hereditarily normal $X \times Y$, one of the factors is perfectly normal or every countable subset of the other factor is closed (in that factor).

To show Fact #2, suppose that $C_p(X)$ is hereditarily normal. With $C_p(X) \cong Y_x \times \mathbb{R}$ and according to Katetov’s theorem, $Y_x$ must be perfectly normal. The product of a perfectly normal space and any metric space is perfectly normal (a proof is found here). Thus $C_p(X) \cong Y_x \times \mathbb{R}$ is perfectly normal.

The proof of Fact #3 is found in Problems 294 and 295 of [2]. The key to the proof is a theorem by Reznichenko, which states that any dense convex normal subspace of $[0,1]^X$ has countable extent, hence is collectionwise normal (problem 294). See here for a proof that any normal space with countable extent is collectionwise normal (see Theorem 2). The function space $C_p(X)$ is a dense convex subspace of $[0,1]^X$ (problem 295). Thus if $C_p(X)$ is normal, then it has countable extent and hence collectionwise normal.

Fact #4 says that normality of the function space imposes countable extent on the domain. This result is discussed in this previous post (see Corollary 3 and Corollary 5).

Remarks

The facts discussed here give a flavor of what function spaces are like when they are normal spaces. For further and deeper results, see [1] and [2].

Fact #1 is essentially driven by Dowker’s theorem. It follows from the theorem that whenever the product space $X \times Y$ is normal, one of the factor must be countably paracompact if the other factor has a non-trivial convergent sequence (see Theorem 2 in this previous post). As a result, there is no Dowker space that is a $C_p(X)$. No pathology can be found in $C_p(X)$ with respect to finding a Dowker space. In fact, not only $C_p(X) \times C$ is normal for any compact metric space $C$, it is also true that $C_p(X) \times T$ is normal for any $\sigma$-compact metric space $T$ when $C_p(X)$ is normal.

The driving force behind Fact #2 is Katetov’s theorem, which basically says that the hereditarily normality of $X \times Y$ is a strong statement. Coupled with the fact that $C_p(X)$ is of the form $Y_x \times \mathbb{R}$, Katetov’s theorem implies that $Y_x \times \mathbb{R}$ is perfectly normal. The argument also uses the basic fact that perfectly normality is preserved when taking product with metric spaces.

There are examples of normal but not collectionwise normal spaces (e.g. Bing’s Example G). Resolution of the question of whether normal but not collectionwise normal Moore space exists took extensive research that spanned decades in the 20th century (the normal Moore space conjecture). The function $C_p(X)$ is outside of the scope of the normal Moore space conjecture. The function space $C_p(X)$ is usually not a Moore space. It can be a Moore space only if the domain $X$ is countable but then $C_p(X)$ would be a metric space. However, it is still a powerful fact that if $C_p(X)$ is normal, then it is collectionwise normal.

On the other hand, a more interesting point is on the normality of $X$. Suppose that $X$ is a normal Moore space. If $C_p(X)$ happens to be normal, then Fact #4 says that $X$ would have to be collectionwise normal, which means $X$ is metrizable. If the goal is to find a normal Moore space $X$ that is not collectionwise normal, the normality of $C_p(X)$ would kill the possibility of $X$ being the example.

Reference

1. Arkhangelskii, A. V., Topological Function Spaces, Mathematics and Its Applications Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1992.
2. Tkachuk V. V., A $C_p$-Theory Problem Book, Topological and Function Spaces, Springer, New York, 2011.

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$\copyright$ 2017 – Dan Ma